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What is the Main Harmful Air in Our Daily Life? Jun 16, 2021

As we know, Air refers to the mixed gas in the earth's atmosphere, which is mainly composed of nitrogen, oxygen, rare gases, carbon dioxide, and other substances (such as water vapor, impurities, etc). With the development of modern industry, harmful gases and smoke emitted into the air have changed the composition of the air and caused air pollution. Polluted air will seriously damage human health. 


What  is the Main Harmful Air in Our Daily Life?

Mainly it consists of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCS), formaldehyde, radon gas, benzene, toluene, xylene, and bacteria etc.


Noun

Where it comes from?

Whats the potential negative effects to us?

Nitrogen dioxide

Automobile exhaust, second-hand smoke

Has a great effect on the lungs.

Carbon monoxide

Automobile exhaust, second-hand smoke,

lighters release gaseous chemical

By affecting blood circulation, it further affects the function of the central nervous system and myocardium, which will hinder the coordination of body functions.

Carbon dioxide

Biological respiration, 

mineral burning

Causes work inefficiency, drowsiness, headaches, etc.

Formaldehyde

Artificial boards and other indoor textiles for interior decoration, Similar to TVOC.

Long-term exposure can cause chronic respiratory diseases, leading to nasopharyngeal cancer, laryngeal cancer, colon cancer, brain tumors and other serious diseases; particularly harmful to children and pregnant women.

Radon gas

Colorless and odorless, with a release period of up to 15 years in building materials such as sand, brick, cement and marble

The biggest killer of lung cancer, can induce leukemia, kidney disease and many other diseases.

Benzene

Gasoline, coatings, chemical adhesives, etc.

Induces anesthesia of the central nervous system and resists the body's hematopoietic function, leading to aplastic anemia and even leukemia, which can also cause birth defects of the fetus.

Toluene

Xylene

Respirable suspended particles (RSP)

Smog, ozone

Cause respiratory symptoms, damage lung tissue, and have the greatest impact on children.

volatile organic compounds(VOCS)

Gaseous chemical substances released from automobile exhaust, industrial waste gas, construction and decoration materials, fiber materials such as carpets, and office equipment such as photocopiers.

Irritates the eyes and lungs, damages the organs of the body, causes skin allergies, headaches, sore throat and fatigue, and even causes cancer in the most severe cases.

Bacteria

Crowd gathering occasion

Spread with epidemic diseases


What's the main professional terms In the field of air purification or disinfection?

  • Positive air ions: Positive-charged ions, positive ions in the air. The more polluted the air, the higher concentration of positive ions. Many positive ions are attached to bacteria floating in the air. People indoors continuously emit harmful substances (positive ions) into the air, and bacteria can survive and multiply in pure positive ions.


  • Negative air ions: The generic term for negatively charged ions and hydrogen ion groups. In the natural ecosystems, forests and wetlands are important places for generating negative oxygen ions. Generally produced by water, air, sunlight and the earth's inherent radiation. 


  • Plasma: Unlike solids, liquids and gases, plasma is the fourth state in substance. Substance is composed of molecules, and molecules are composed of atoms, and atoms are composed of a positively charged nucleus and surrounding negatively charged electrons. When electrons leave the nucleus, this process is called "ionization." Through a sufficiently high temperature and pressure, the outer electrons get rid of the nucleus and become free electrons, and the substance becomes an ion group composed of positively charged atomic nuclei and negatively charged electrons. The total amount of positive and negative charges in these ion groups is nearly equal(almost neutral), so it is called plasma.


  • Ozone: It is an allotrope of oxygen. It has strong oxidizing properties and is an oxidizing agent that is stronger than oxygen. The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere near the surface is 0.001-0.03ppm, which is generated by oxygen in the atmosphere after absorbing the sun's ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of less than 185nm. Ozone can irritate the mucous membranes of the human respiratory tract. When the ozone concentration in the air reaches 0.15ppm, it can be smelled; according to international standards, it can cause discomfort such as thirsty when it reaches 0.5-1ppm; it can cause cough when it reaches 1-4ppm; It can cause a strong cough when it reaches 4-10ppm . Therefore, when using ozone to disinfect air, it must be in an unmanned place and at least 30 minutes after disinfection before entering. Ozone disinfection can also be called accelerated aging process.


  • Ultraviolet (UV): It is the generic term for radiation with a wavelength of 400nm-10nm in the electromagnetic spectrum. Ultraviolet rays can be used to kill bacteria, but too much ultraviolet rays can cause skin cancer. In the solar spectrum, the frequency of ultraviolet rays is higher than that of visible rays. It can be divided into 4 types: UVA (400nm320nm, low frequency long wave), UVB (320nm280nm, medium frequency medium wave), UVC (280nm100nm, high frequency short wave), EUV (100nm10nm, ultra high frequency wave). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) and nucleoprotein in bacteria have the strongest ultraviolet absorption peak at 257nm254nm. When bacteria absorb ultraviolet rays, they cause DNA strands to break, leading to the rupture of the cross-links of nucleic acids and proteins, killing the biological activity of nucleic acids, and ultimately causing the death of bacteria. The intensity of the ultraviolet lamp must be greater than 90uW/cm2, and the effect of sterilization and disinfection can be achieved after irradiation for more than half an hour.


  • Photocatalyst: it is a generic term for semiconductor materials with photocatalytic function (mainly N-type semiconductor materials), represented by nano-sized titanium dioxide. The representative photocatalyst material is titanium dioxide, which can produce strong oxidizing substances (such as hydroxyl radicals, oxygen, etc.) under light irradiation, and can be used to decompose organic compounds, some inorganic compounds, bacteria and viruses, etc. Research on N-type semiconductor materials also found that precious metals (platinum, rhodium, palladium, etc.) have better photocatalytic performance. However, since most of these materials are prone to chemical action or photochemical corrosion, and the cost of precious metals is too high, they are basically not suitable for daily applications.


  • TVOC: TVOC includes VOC. VOC is the abbreviation for volatile organic compounds. The generic term of the various measured VOC is called TVOC (Total Volatile Organic Compounds). In a general sense, VOC refers to volatile organic compounds. However, the definition in the environmental sense refers to the active type of volatile organic compounds, that is, the type of volatile organic compounds that can cause potential negative effects. This manual generally refers to: smoke, musty, refrigerator peculiar smell, room peculiar smell, human body peculiar smell, etc.


  • Bacteria: The most numerous type of organisms, belonging to prokaryotes. Bacteria are generally single cells with simple cell structure, lacking a nucleus, cytoskeleton and membranous organelles. Bacteria are divided into: cocci (0.5-1μm in diameter), bacilli, and spirals (generally 5-50μm in length and 0.5-5μm in width).


  • Viruses: are a class of acellular microbes that are tiny and have no complete cell structure. They are composed of proteins and nucleic acids and must parasitize and replicate in living cells. It consists of a long nucleic acid chain and a protein shell, without its own metabolic mechanism and enzyme system. Therefore, when the virus leaves the host cell, it becomes a chemical substance that has no life activity and cannot reproduce independently. Bacteria and viruses are both microbes and can only be seen under a microscope.



  • PM2.5: Refers to the particulate matter in the ambient air with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns. It can be suspended in the air for a longer time, and the higher its concentration in the air, the more serious the air pollution. Compared with the coarser atmospheric particulate matter, PM2.5 has a small particle size, a large area, strong activity, easy to carry toxic and harmful substances (for example, heavy metals, microorganisms, etc.), and has a long residence time in the atmosphere and a long transportation distance. Therefore, it has a greater impact on human health and the quality of the atmospheric environment.

 

       World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 "Air Quality Guidelines"

Items

Annual average value

Daily average value

Guideline value

10μg/m³

25μg/m³

Transitional period objective 1

35μg/m³

75μg/m³

Transitional period objective 2

25μg/m³

50μg/m³

Transitional period objective 3

15μg/m³

37.5μg/m³

 


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